History of Delaware County and Ohio

During the past six months we have been engaged in compiling the History of Delaware County, and on theSe pages our historians, W. H. Perrin and J. H. Battle, have traced the tedious journey of the pioneer from homes of comfort; and refinement to the untouched wilds of the West; we have noted the rising cabins, the clearing of the forests, the privations of the early settlements, the heroic fortitude with which the pioneer surmounted these obstacles, and the patient toil that has "made the wilderness to blossom like the rose;" we have marked the coming of the schoolmaster, and that greater teacher, the preacher; the rise of the schoolhouse and church, and their influence in molding society. This work we have undertaken in the belief that there is a proper demand that the events which relate to the early times should find a permanent record, and with what fidelity to facts, and with what patience of research, we have accomplished the task, we shall leave to the judgment of our patrons, in whose keeping the traditions of that day remain, and for whom the work was undertaken. The scope and necessity of this enterprise have, in some respects, entailed less satisfactory duties upon the historians than fall to the lot of writers of more pretentious works, and yet the work has been one of pleasure. We have availed ourselves of such historical manuscripts as were found, but our chief resource for information has been the traditions which have been handed down from one generation to another. These we have generally been able to verify from other sources, but, in some not essential particulars, we have been obliged to depend upon tradition alone, and may thus have sanctioned some errors. These, we trusty will be found of trifling importance, and we ground our hope of the favorable judgment oP the public upon the essential correctness and completeness of this volume as a history of Delaware County.


Table of Contents


CHAPTER I. Introductory, Topography, Geology, Primitive Races, Antiquities, Indian Tribes 11
CHAPTER II. ExplorationB in the West 19
CHAPTER III. English Explorations, Traders, French and Indian War in the West, English Possession 37
CHAPTER IV. Pontiac's Conspiracy, Its Failure, Bouquet's Expedition, Occupation by the English 48
CHAPTER V. American Exploration, Dunmore's War, Campaign of George Rogers Clarke, Land Troubles, Spain in the Revolution, Murder of the Moravian Indians 52
CHAPTER VI. - American Occupation, Indian Claims, Early Land Companies, Compact of 1787, Organization of the Territory, Early American Settlements in the Ohio Valley, First Territorial Officers, Organization of Counties 60
CHAPTER VII. - Indian War of 1795, Harmar's Campaign, St. Clair's Campaign, Wayne's Campaign, Close of the War 73
CHAPTER VIII. Jay's Treaty, The Question of State Rights and National Supremacy, Extension of Ohio Settlements, Land Claims, Spanish Boundary Question 79
CHAPTER IX. First Territorial Representatives in Congress, Division of the Territory, Formation of States, Marietta Settlement, Other Settlements, Settlements in the Western Reserve, Settlement of the Central Valleys, Further Settlements In the Reserve and elsewhere 85
CHAPTER X. Formation of the State Government, Ohio a State, The State Capitals, Legislation, The "Sweeping" Resolutions 121
CHAPTER XI. The War of 1812, Growth of the State, Canal, Railroads and Other Improvements, Development of of State Resources 127
CHAPTER XII. Mexican War, Continued Growth of the State, War of the Rebellion, Ohio's Part in the Conflict 132
CHAPTER XIII. Ohio in the Centennial, Address of Edward D. Mansfield, LL. D., Philadelphia, August 9, 1876 138
CHAPTER XIV. Education, Early School Laws, Notes, Institutions and Educational Journals, School System, School Funds, Colleges and Universities 148
CHAPTER XV. Agriculture, Area of the State, Early Agriculture in the West, Markets, Live Stock, Nurseries, Fruits, Etc.; Cereals, Root and Cucurbitaceous Crops, Agricultural Implements, Agricultural Societies, Pomological and Horticultural Societies 151
CHAPTER XVI. Climatology, Outline, Variation in Ohio, Estimate in Degrees, Amount of Variability 163
CHAPTER I. Introduction, Physical Geography of the County, Railroad Elevation, Soil and Timber, Cuyahoga Shale and Sandstone, The Drift, Berea Grit, Huron Shale, Calcareous Concretions, etc 165
CHAPTER II. Earliest History, Prehistoric Races, Their Antiquity, Relics, Fortifications; The Delawares, Indian Treaties, Withdrawal of the Indians, Pioneer Settlements, The Carpenter, Byxbe and Pugh Colonies, Other Settlements 180
CHAPTER III. Life in the Wilderness, Pioneer Incidents, Early Improvements, Modern Innovations, Building of Towns and Villages, Old Settlers' Association 197
CHAPTER IV. Organization of the County, The Courts, Formation of Townships, Political Parties and Their Effect, Vote of the County from 1861 to 1879, Care of the Poor 206
CHAPTER V. The Professions, Pioneer Lawyers and the Courts, The Bar of the Present, Medical, Some of the Early Systems, Old Practitioners, Modern Doctors, The Medical Society 219
CHAPTER VI. Early Church History, Pioneer, Preachers, First Schools, Statistics, Academies and Seminaries, The University, Reform School, Watering Places, The Newspapers 239
CHAPTER VII. Railroad History, The First Railroads in the World, Railroads in the United States, Internal Improvements in Ohio, Her First Railroad, The Railroads of the County, Projected Railroads 252
CHAPTER VIII. Agriculture, Societies, Advancements in Geoponics, Care of Animals, Tiling, Fruit and Forest Culture, Meteorological 259
CHAPTER IX. War History, The Revolution, Pioneers of 1812, Mexican Struggle, The County's Part in the Late War, Great Men 277
CHAPTER X. Delaware Township, Introduction, Stratford, Settlement, Founding of the City, The War Period, Growth of Business, Society, The Byxbe Family 310
CHAPTER XI. Delaware City, Extensions, Population, Finance, Internal Improvements, City Organization, Fire Department, Newspapers, Cemeteries 331
CHAPTER XII. Delaware City, Educational, High Schools and Seminaries, The Wesleyan, Biographical, Female College, Commercial Schools 362
CHAPTER XIIT. Delaware City, The Churches, Advance of Religion, The Presbyterian, Other Churches, Freemasonry, Other Secret Societies 389
CHAPTER XIV. Liberty Township, Prehistoric Races, Their Belies; Early Settlement, Indians, Pioneer Improvements, Mills, Bridges, etc.; Civilization, Tillages 412
CHAPTER XV. Berkshire Township, Its Physical Features, Settlement of the Whites, Pioneer Industries, Progress of Civilization, Educational, The Villages 428
CHAPTER XVI. Berlin Township, Descriptive, Early Settlement, The Indians, Pioneer Journeys, Incidents of Drake's Defeat, Life in the Woods, Churches, etc 451
CHAPTER XVII. Orange Township, The Morton Colony, Other Settlements, Early Militia, The War of 1812, Frontier Privations, Roads, Educational and Religious 468
CHAPTER XVIII. Scioto Township, Descriptive, The Pioneers, Early Christianity, Modem Religion, Schools, War Record, The Villages 482
CHAPTER XIX. Concord Township, Physical Features, Settlement, Early Industries, Religion and Education, Sulphur Springs, The Haunted House, Villages 491
CHAPTER XX. Radnor Township, The Welsh Pioneers, Their Language, Indians, Educational, "The Seven Churches" of Radnor, Sunday-School History, Delhi and Other Towns 502
CHAPTER XXI. Marlborough Township, Its Early Settlement, Pioneer Days, Facts and Incidents, Progress of Civilization, Educational, Christianity, Old Forts, The Towns 612
CHAPTER XXII. Troy Township, Description and Topography, Early Times, The First Settlers, The Mains, Early Industries, Churches, etc.; Political 523
CHAPTER XXIII. Oxford Township, Topographical and Descriptive, Early Settlements, Frontier Privations, Education and Religion, Villages 537
CHAPTER XXIV. Thompson Township, Description, The Pioneers, Their Settlement, Improvements, Christianity and Education, Political, Hamlets, Etc. 643
CHAPTER XXV. Brown Township, Introduction, The Salt Reservation, Indians, Coming of the Palefaces, Privations, Marriages, Deaths, etc.; County Charities, Towns 551
CHAPTER XXVI. Kingston Township, Description, Settlement, Virginia School District, Religious and Sunday-school History, Education, Politics 560
CHAPTER XXVII. Porter Township, Introductory, Pioneer Settlements, Frontier Sufferings, Industries, Schools, Churches, etc 575
CHAPTER XXVIII. Trenton Township, A Change of Name, Description, Early Settlement, Improvements, Progress of Civilization, The Railroad 587
CHAPTER XXIX. Hariem Township, Topography, Military Lands, Colonization, Jonathan Thompson, An Incident, Mills, Roads, etc.; Towns 693
CHAPTER XXX. Genoa Township, Physical Features, Incidents, Settlement, Pioneer Industries, Church Annals, Schools, Maxwell Comers 601


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The author of Ecce Deus says: "History can never be written; it can only be hinted at, and most dimly outlined from the particular standpoint which the historian has chosen to occupy. It is only by courtesy that any man can be called an historian. Seldom do men so flatly contradict each other as upon points of fact. Incompleteness marks all narrations. No man can fully write his own life. On reviewing the sheets which were to have told everything, the autobiographer is struck with their reticence and poverty." Another writer has said, that "history is an imperfect record of nations and races, diverse in their position and capacities, but identical in nature and one in destiny. Viewed comprehensively, its individuals and events comprise the incidents of an uncompleted biography of man, a biography long, obscure, full of puzzling facts for thought to interpret, and more puzzling breaks for thought to bridge; but, on the whole, exhibiting man as moving, and as moving forward." And still another author says, that " history is but the footprints upon the sands of time, by which we trace the growth, development, and advancement of the people constituting a nation." We might add, that it is history that takes note of the humblest tiller of the soil as well as of the scholar, the statesman, the soldier, and the great and good men and women who build the imperishable monuments of a country's greatness. Of the men and things that existed in the world during, the many dark centuries that precede the historic period, we know nothing, except through rude hieroglyphics and vague traditions, handed down through the beclouded minds of unlettered and superstitious people. Beginning with the age of letters and improvements in the languages of the world, followed by the modern inventions of printing types and presses, and the immense institution of the daily newspaper and telegraph, minute and reliable records of the world's daily doings are chronicled, and out of these veritable history is formulated.