History of the county of Westmoreland, Pennsylvania

The rapidity in which these sheets (equivalent to some four thousand manuscript folios) passed through the press and the hands of the editor precluded that careful and close scrutiny which an ordinary work is in all justice entitled to receive, and this by a proof-reader not perplexed with other business affairs. As a consequence there are some typographical errors and perhaps a few inadvertencies, some of which are apparent to us on a final scrutiny. One misstatement which crept into the body of the work from a broken copy, but which was printed in only a very few of the first of the impressions of this edition before we noticed it, we desire to correct. In that part of the ecclesiastical history in which the history of the Roman Catholic Church is given it is said that the Right Rev. Abbott Wimmer was the first prelate to enter the council had at the Council of the Vatican, etc., when it should be, as it was intended, he was with those prelates, etc. The copy was here wrongly read; hence a discrepancy which wt desire to explain. We make this explanation of the correction not with the mere object of righting the misstatement, but from a sense of duty, fully appreciating that no one would be more sensitive to an undue and equivocal exaltation than that right reverend prelate himself.

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER I.
Introductory - Early Provincial History 13

CHAPTER II.
The French Occupancy of Fort Duquesne 17

CHAPTER III.
Braddock's Expedition 20

CHAPTER IV.
Armstrong's Expedition, 1756 - Bouquet at Ligonier, 1758 25

CHAPTER V.
28

CHAPTER VI.
First Settlements in Westmoreland Battle of Bushy Run, 1763 32

CHAPTER VII.
Settlement from 1759 to 1769.

CHAPTER VIII.
42

CHAPTER IX.
Customs, Morals, and Manners prior to the Erection of the County 47

CHAPTER X.
Westmoreland County Organized Counts Established, Etc. 51

CHAPTER XI.
First Jail Early Punishments Slavery in 1781 57

CHAPTER XII.
Old Hannastown, the Seat 61

CHAPTER XIII.
Border Troubles of 1774 Begin 63

CHAPTER XIV.
Connolly's Usurpations, Indian Alarms, Etc. 66

CHAPTER XV.
Dunmore's War 70

CHAPTER XVI.
Westmoreland's Declaration of Independence 1775 73

CHAPTER XVII.
The Affairs of Westmoreland on the Eve of the Revolution

CHAPTER XVIII.
Westmoreland in the Revolution 81

CHAPTER XIX.
Border Warfare and Civil Dissensions 97

CHAPTER XX.
Forts 11 Block-Houses, and Incidents of Warfare 102

CHAPTER XXI.
Forays and Adventures 107

CHAPTER XXII.
Lower Ligonier Valley during the Revolution 111

CHAPTER XXIII.
Upper Ligonier Valley during the Revolution 115

CHAPTER XXIV.
Captain Brady and His Exploits 118

CHAPTER XXV.
Lochry's Expedition 124

CHAPTER XXVI.
Crawford's Expedition to Sandusky 131

CHAPTER XXVII.
Condition of the People in 1780-81

CHAPTER XXVIII.
Destruction of Hannastown 138

CHAPTER XXIX.
Last Days of Hannastown Execution of Mamachtaga 148

CHAPTER XXX.
The Pioneers Their Houses, Furniture Etc. 153

CHAPTER XXXI.
Primitive Housekeeping and Farming 157

CHAPTER XXXII.
Bears, Deer, Wolves, etc. 162

CHAPTER XXXIII.
Salt, Whiskey, Early Mills, and Furnaces 166

CHAPTER XXXIV.
Primitive Roads and Methods of Transportation 176

CHAPTER XXXV.
Turnpikes Conestoqa Wagons - Pioneer Inns 181

CHAPTER XXXVI.
The Last of the Border Commotions 187

CHAPTER XXXVII.
The Whiskey Insurrection 196

CHAPTER XXXVIII.
William Findley 207

CHAPTER XXXIX.
Arthur St. Clair 213

CHAPTER XL.
War of Eighten-Twelve 226

CHAPTER LXI.
Ecclesiastical History 233

CHAPTER XLII.
The Press and Literature 279

CHAPTER XLIII.
The Legal Profession 293

CHAPTER XLIV.
The Medical Profession 344

CHAPTER XLV.
Common Schools 371

CHAPTER XLVI.
Mexico 382

CHAPTER XLVII.
Westmoreland in the Civil War 388

CHAPTER XLVIII.
Canals and Railroads 400

CHAPTER XLIX.
Coke 405

CHAPTER L.
Civil History, Statistics, and Miscellaneous 414

CHAPTER LI.
County Buildings 425

CHAPTER LII.
Nomenclature 432

CHAPTER LIII.
Special Biographies 436

Appendices 447

 

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We propose in the following pages to collect thing of the early history of the county of Westmoreland, a county which has aptly been designated as a mother of counties. What, above all other things, has induced as to this attempt is the fact that nothing of the kind has heretofore been attempted. A local history cannot be compared with a general hit narrative, nor has it been the intention of the writer to show his effort in thai direction. He has, however, made a reasonable effort to collect all matter relating to our early history from the written and p documents accessible, but which are so around, like the mystic leaves which, blown by the blast from the hollow earth, were scattered to all the winds in the cave of the Sibyl.