History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
In collecting the materials necessary for compiling a History of Lancaster County, we sought access to every possible source of information, as far as our prescribed time and limited means admitted. Could we have anticipated half the difficulties we should encounter in prosecuting our researches, we would certainly have relinquished the undertaking. Although we had spent several months in search of materials, the collection was still far from being satisfactory to our ourselves, but owing to the Publisher's engagements, we were constrained to yield to his wishes and commence the arrangement of such materials as were on hand. To add to what was collected, we read, in less than one hundred days, upwards of ten thousand pages, opened correspondence with a number of gentlemen, in different parts of the county, called on scores of persons — on some ten times — who had fairly promised to collect facts, &c. — arranged the materials, re-wrote half the book twice, examined a portion of the proof sheets, now and then attended to business abroad, yet amidst all this " bustle and hurry," we aimed to trace facts to their sources; and these, it is confidently believed, are authentic.
Table of Contents
Introductory part: from the earliest settlements made in Pennsylvania, to the first settlements made within the present limits of Lancaster county.
Colinization, remarks on, p. 13; Purchases made from the Indians, 14; In New England, 15; By Calvert, 15; By Roger Williams. 15; By the Swedes, 15; By Carteret, 16; Penn follows their example, 16; Early settlement of Delaware bay and river, 17; Swedes supplanted by the Dutch, 18; Dutch triumph short, 18; Delaware taken possession of by the English, 18; Penn purchases New Castle, 18.
William Penn born, p. 19; How he was made acquainted with America, 20; Instrumental in settling West New Jersey, 20; Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania, 21; First purchasers embark for America, 22; Markham's instruction, 22; He holds a treaty with the Indians, 22; Penn arrives in America, 23; Convenes an Assembly at Upland, 23; Interview with Lord Baltimore, 23; Religious visits, 23; Visits New Jersey, the Duke of York, his friends on Long Island: returns to Philadelphia, holds his grand treaty with the Indians, 24-26; More arrivals from Europe, 26; Emigrants provide shelters, 27; Form plantations, 27; Philadelphia laid out, 28; Counties organized, 28; Second Assembly convoked, 28; Penn obliged to return to Europe, 29.
Brief sketch of the History of Pennsylvania from 1684 to 1699, p. 30-37; Provincial executives from 1684 to 1699, 31; Boundaries of Chester county determined, 34; Increase of population, 34; First mills in Chester county, 34; Penn's effort to improve the condition of the natives, 35; Efforts to christianize the Indians, 35; Penn's new treaty with the Susquehanna, Shawanese and Ganawese, &c. natives, 36; A new form of Government framed, 37; Penn appoints Andrew Hamilton deputy governor: sails for England, 37.
Prince William dies, p. 38; Anne ascends the throne, 38; Penn in favor with her, 38; State of affairs in the province, 39; Disquiet among the Indians, 39; Messenger sent to the Conestogo Indians: Secretary of the council and sheriff of Chester and New Castle are sent to them, 40; Thomas Chalkley preaches at Conestogo, 41; Governor visits the Conestogo Indians, 44; Indian eloquence, 44; Gov. Evans' strange character, and second journey to Susquehanna, 45; Governor's journal of his interview with the Indians, 46; Nicole apprehended at Paxtan, conveyed to Philadelphia and imprisoned, 51.
Cause of disquietude among the Indians, p. 53; Indians at Conestogo send a messenger to the council, 53; Mitchell and other Europeans intrude upon the Indians, 54; Governor Evans' explanation of Mitchell's course, 53; Critical juncture, 55; Evans re-called, 56; Gookin appointed governor, 56; Penn's embarrassment, 56; Quitrents, 56; Emigration impeded, 57; Gookin sends a message to the Indians at Conestogo, 57; Swedish missionaiy at Conestogo, 59; His sermon and Indian chief's answer, 59-60; French and Worley on a message to Conestogo.
From the earliest settlements made within the present limits of the county to its organization in the year 1729.
Preliminary remarks, p. 67; Unsettled state of affairs in Europe, 68; Consequent emigration of Swiss, Germans, French and others, into America, 70; Into Pennsylvania, 72; Swiss Mennonites settle in Pequea Valley, 74; Purchase ten thousand acres of land, 76; Make improvements, 78, Others purchase lands, 79; The Mennonites call a meeting to send a person to Europe for the residue of their families, 80; Keneig goes and returns with a number of families, 8 ; Settlements augmented, 82; Governor Gookia's journey to Conestogo, 86.
Ferree family make preparations to emigrate to America, 90; Procure certificates of civil and religious standing, 92; By way of Holland and England come to New York, 96; Acquire the rights of citizenship, 96; Settle in Lancaster county, 101 ; Several documents of interest, 103; Tradition of the ancestors of the Ferrees, by Joel Lightner, Esq., 108; Tuscarora Indians winter with the Five Nations, 113.
Augmentation of settlements, p. 115; Germans and English settle around the Swiss or Palatines, 117; Settlements in different parts of the county, 120; Names of persons naturalized, 123; Notice of Slaymakers, 127; Conestoga Manor surveyed, 129; Names of first purchasers, 131; Graffchal settled, 133; Lancaster and vicinity settled, 135; Squatters on the west side of Susquehanna, 136; Indians at Conestoga address a letter to Logan, 136; Col. French goes to Conestoga: holds a treaty with the Indians, 137; Logan meets them on the Susquehanna, 141; Samuel Robins sent to Virginia, 153.
Governor Keith visits the governor of Virginia, p. 154; Holds a council with the Indians at Conestogo 155; Indians complain of the use of rum, &c. 158; Their trade in pelts impaired, 160; Secretary Logan holds a discourse with Ghesaont, 169; Ghesaont's reply, &c. 170; Disturbances created by intruders under pretense of finding copper mines, &c. 175 ; Governor Keith has a survey made on the west side of Susquehanna. 176; Indians alarmed by Maryland intruders, 176; Logan, French and sheriff of the county hold a council at Conestogo, 177; Keith determines to resist attempted encroachments by the Marylanders, 178; A council is held at Conestogo, 179; Springetsbury manor surveyed, 182; Council held at Conoytown, 182; Settlement of Germans at Swatara and Tulpehocken, 182.
Donegal township organized, p. 135; First settlers, 185; Harris attempted to settle at Conoy, 185; Settles at Paxton, 186; Settlement commenced by Barber, Wright and Blunston, 187; Settlements back from the river, 189; Reamstown settltment, 190; Welsh settlement, 191; Weber's Thal settlement, 192; Settlement at Sacue Schwamm, or New Holland, 193; Germans misrepresented, 194; Committee appointed to inquire into the facts; makes report, 196; Thomas Wright killed by the Indians, 197; Inhabitants of the upper part of Chester county alarmed, 198; Governor Gordon goes to Conestogo and holds a treaty with the Indians, 199; Returns to Philadelphia: Note: Iron works, 206 ; David DiefFenderfer, brief notice of, 207.
Ephrata, p. 211; Origin of German Baptists in Europe, and their emigration to America, 212; Sieben Taeger Association formed at Ephrata by Conrad Beissel, 215; Change of life among them, 216; They built Kedar and Zion, 217; Singular architecture of buildings, 218; Factur: Schriften by the Sisters, 219; Specimens of original poetry, 220; Eckerlein and the bell, 222; Its destination, 223; Sabbath school established, 224; Miller succeeds Beissel, 225; Juliana Penn's letter, 229; Poetry dedicated to Miller, 230 ; Present state of Ephrata, 232; List of names of the first inhabitants of Ephrata, 232; Names of some of the early settlers in Lancaster county, 233.
From the organization of Lancaster county, one thousand seven hundred and twenty-nine.
Erection and organization of the county, p. 235; Boundaries of, 239; Seat of Justice, 242; James Annesly, 243; Boundaries of townships, 244; First court held at Postlewhaites, 250; Extracts of court records, 250; Morris Cannady indicted, 250; Found guilty and sold, 252; Constables, overseers and supervisors appointed, 252; Applicants to be Indian traders, 253; Petitions for license to sell rum, 254; First court held at Lancaster, 255; Conrad Weiser, notice of, 256; Notes, &c. 260.
Road from Lancaster to Philadelphia ordered to be laid out, &c. p. 262; Election excitement, or violent contest, 264; Border frays, 265; Townships erected, 266; Pennsborough and Hopewell, west of the Susquehanna, 266; Hanover, 267; Little Britain, 367; James Ewing born, 567; Contest between the Marylanders and inhabitants of Lancaster, 268; Cressap and his associates attempt to displace the Germans, 269; Is apprehended and imprisoned, 269; Governor Ogle sends messengers to Philadelphia, 269; German settlers seized and carried to Baltimore, 269; The council sends an embassy to Governor Ogle, 270; Marylanders break into Lancaster jail, 270; Germans naturalized, 270; Notes of variety, 272.
Governor Thomas appointed, p. 274; The county divided into eight districts, 274; Several new townships formed, 275; John Wright's charge to the grand jury, 276; Brief memoir of Wright, 281; Serjeant attempts to instruct the Indians, 282; Omish apply to the Assembly for an act of naturalization, 282; Count Zinzendorf in Lancaster, 283; Visits Wyoming, 284; Indians conclude to massacre him, 284; Singular incident dissuades them, 285; Attempts made to prejudice the Assembly against the Germans, 286; Martin Meylin's house built, 286; Church council convoked, 287; Irish behavior or conduct at an election, 288; Disputes between Irish and German, 288; Murhancellin murders Armstrong and his two, servants, 289; Murhancellin arrested and imprisoned, 289; Indian treaty held in Lancaster, 289; Indians peel Musser's walnut trees, 290; Lutheran excitement in Lancaster, 291; Lindley Murray born, 291; Notes of variety, 292.
York county organized, p. 293; Election frauds, 294; Sabbath school commenced at Ephrata, 294; David Ramsay born: memoir of, 295; Bart township organized, 297; House of employment provided, 298; General Clark, 299; Abundant crops, 299; Distilleries erected, 299; Partial famine, 300; Indian alarms and horrid atrocities, 300; French neutrals imported, 301; Their condition unenviable, 302; An Act to disperse them, 208; Cooper, Webb and Le Fevre appointed to execute the several provisions of the act, 303; Another Act passed relative to the French neutrals, 304; Notes of variety, 306.
Moravian community at Litiz, p. 308; Zinzendorf in Lancaster, 309; Applicaticn to the conference at Bethlehem, 310; Commencement of Litiz, 311; Parsonage built, 311; School-house removed; Rev. B.A. Grube, 312; Present condition or state of Litiz: Improvements Church and consecration of it, &c. 313; List of the names of pastors, 315; Schools and names of teachers, 317; Brother and sister houses, 320; The grave yard, 324; The spring, 328; Population, mechanics, &;c. 329.
Hostilities between the English and the French in America, p. 332; Delarware and Shawanese Indians commit murders, 333; General Braddock's arrival, 333; Braddock's defeat, 334; Dismay caused among the frontier settlers, 334; Paxton and Tulpehocken refugees at Ephrata, 335; Murders committed by the Indians, 335; Block-house erected at Lancaster, 336; Inhabitants of Lancaster county petition the Assembly for a militia law, 337; Scalping parties, 338; War suspended against the Indians, 338; Preperations made to repel Indian incursions, 339; Conrad Weiser commands nine companies, 339; French hostilities continued, 340; Murders committed by the Indians in 1757, 339; Indian treaties, at Lancaster and at Easton, 340; Minutes extract from, of Indian treaty, at Lancaster. 340; King Beaver's speech, 342; Treaty held at Easton: fifteen tribes of Indians represented; Murders by Indians in Tulpehocken, 343; Murders committed by the Indians in 1758, 344; Cumberland over-run by savages, 344; Inhabitants fled to Lancaster, &c., 345; Barracks erected at Lancaster, 346; Work-house erected at Lancaster, 346; The Irish sell to the Germans, and seat themselves at Chestnut Glade, 347; Baron Stiegel lays out Manheim, 347; Notice of the Baron, 348; Notes of variety; Emanuel Carpenter, 394.
Tendency of war, p. 350; Hostilities continued, 351; Lancaster county exposed to Indian incursions, 352; Treachery of the Conestoga Indians, 352; Paxton and Donegal Rangers watch the Indians closely, 359; Indian villagers massacred, 356; Those abroad taken under protection by the magistrates of Lancaster, 356; Governor Penn's proclamation, 357; The Paxton boys at Lancaster: massacre the Indians, 358; Governor Penn issues another proclamation, 360; The Paxton boys grow desperate, and "show up some Indian," 362; Resort to Philadelphia, 363; Their non-commendable conduct there, 363; They return peaceably to their homes, leaving two of their number to present their grievances to the Assembly, 365; Robert Fulton, 366; B.S. Barton, 367; Notes of variety.
Hail storm, p. 369; Proceedings, &c. by the citizens of Lancaster county touching the usurpation of Parliament, in Great Britain, 371; Letter from the committee of correspondence at Philadelphia, 372; Meeting at the court house in Lancaster, 373; Copy of a circular letter from Philadelphia, 376; Meeting called at Lancaster, 378; Subscriptions opened for the relief of the suffering Bostonians, 380; Letters from Philadelphia, 382; Meeting called, to be held at Lancaster, 383; Committee appointed, 384; Meeting held, 385; Letter from Reading, 387; Meeting of the committee of inspection, &c., 388; CJommittee men from different townships meet at Lancaster, 395; Their proceedings, &c. &c. 395.
Course of the mother country objectionable, p. 404; Military convention at Lancaster, 405; Daniel Roberdeun and James Ewing elected Brigadier Generals, 407; Resolutions passed and adopted, 407; Committee of safety: convention to form the first State Constitution, 408; Pennsylvania and Lancaster county active, 409; Numerous incidents, &c. in Lancaster county during the Revolution, 410; General Wayne's head quarters and correspondence with his Excellency, Thomas Wharton, President of the Executive Council of Pennsylvania, 411; Congress repairs from Philadelphia to Lancaster, thence to York, 420; Military meeting at Manheim, 421; Surviving Revolutionary soldiers: Philip Meek, 323; John Ganter, 424; George Leonard, Peter Mauerer, Peter Shindle, Jacob Hoover, 425; Notes, 426.
Lancaster county after the Revolution, 427; Germans and those of German extraction; views on education, 427; Franklin college established, 428; First board of Trustees, 428; Reichenbach: New Jerusalem Church; the twelve articles received by that church, 429; Improvements great in the county, 433; Columbia laid out, 433; Lancaster city, seat of government 434; Late war: moans of Lancaster county, 434; Notes of variety, 435.
EDUCATION: — Preliminary remarks: Importance of general education, p.436 ; Views of colonists, 437; Mennonites' views of education, 438; Scotch and Irish settlers, made at first little preparation, &c. till 1798, 439; First schools in the town of Lancaster, 440; Lutheran and German Reformed churches have schools under their auspices, 440; Rev. M. Schlatter, indefatigable in his efforts to establish schools, 443; Extract from Coetuale proceedings of 1760, 442; Trustees and managers of public schools, 443; Germans patriotic, modest and unassuming, &c. 443; Ludwig Hacker establishes a Sabbath school at Ephrata, 444; German classical school at Ephrata, 445; Academy at Ephrata, 445; Academy at Litiz, &c. 445,446; Select Academy at Lancaster, 446; Franklin college, &c. 447; Private schools and Academies in various parts of the county, 448; An act for the education of children in the borough of Lancaster, 448; The Mechanics' Society, 450; Classical Academy: Lancaster County Academy: Classical Academies in the county, 451, 453; Seminaries: Common Schools: Sabbath Schools Lyceums, &c. 453.
RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS. — Early missionaries among the Conestoga and other Indians, p. 455; The Mennonites, 356; The Friends and Quakers, 457; The Ornish or Amish, 457; The Episcopalians, 457; The Presbyterians, 457; The German Baptists, 458; The German Seventh Day Baptists, 458; The Lutherans, 458; The German Reformed, 459; The United Brethren or Moravians, 461; The Roman Catholics, 461; The Methodist Episcopal, 461; The New Jerusalem Church, 462; The Evangelical Association, 462; The Reformed Mennonites, 462; The Universalists; The Seceders; The United Brethren; The Church of God; The Calvanistic Baptists, 463; The Mormons, ''Millerites" and African Churches, 464.
Geology of Lancaster County, p. 465; Natural History, 467; Mammalia, 470; Reptilia, 471; Ophidia, 471; Sauria, 472; Amphibia, 472; Pisces, 472; Coleoptera, 474; Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, 478; Mollusca, 479; Helicidae, 481; Unionidae, 482.
Catalogue of the Filicoid and Flowering Plants of Lancaster county, 483. List of Birds, by Libhart, 508.
APPENDIX. — A. The Maryland and Pennsylvania boundary line. B. James Le Tort. C. The Huguenots.
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From History it is evident that the formation of Colonies, which is among the oldest occurrences recorded, or handed down by tradition, was owing to various causes, and different circumstances. Perhaps the avaricious desire of man as an individual to increase his possessions, and collectively as a nation to enlarge his domains, by extending the boundaries of empire, and to secure a country acquired by the right of discovery, taken by conquest, or otherwise obtained, is a leading, among many causes, of colonization.