History of Erie County, Pennsylvania
VOLUME I - Historical Index
Numerous and exceedingly worthy histories and studies of the remaining evidences of past times hereabouts have been published for the gratification and instruction of mankind. Very much has been written for the current press of the land, having to do with "Reminiscences," "Anecdotes," "Memoirs," and other subjects, all of which enables us of later generations to discern more accurately the environment of our ancestors, the problems and achievements of our predecessors, the evidences of former habitation and of the habits and experiences of former groups of toilers; and constant research by scientific men has placed within our reach, much material which is exceedingly valuable to us in striving to reconstruct the story of the past.
The earnest toil of any man, or of any group of men, to achieve the fulfillment of a life ambition lays the foundation upon which those who follow him, or them, continue to construct and build up the superstructure which will express their conception of what mankind is striving to reach in this world. The story of the past, however imperfect and incomplete it may be, yet affords us instruction and guidance for the present and incentive and stimulus for the future. Without the past, we could not be what we are. Without the record of past accomplishments, and of past failures, we could not profit by those strivings toward the goal of the race, and much that had been worked out in the past would have to be repeated by ourselves.
Little by little we are beginning to ascertain the fundamental causes of the events, both small and great, which show the course of discipline and development conceived by the Creator for the welfare of the race and the accomplishment of His great purpose. More and more we can read and understand the old, old story written upon and within the rocks; in the sacred habitations of the dead of long ages ago; the remains of ancient habitations of humans in the deserts, in the cliffs, in and upon earth mounds in widely distributed localities, remnants of industrial activity of former ages; increasing numbers of "finds" of inscriptions, documents, pictographs, correspondence, domestic arrangements, utensils and implements; and other monuments and records left for our study by the men who toiled that we might have a better start for the fulfillment of the human destiny.
The record of human events and former achievements which we term history becomes, therefore, the most really worth while matter for our contemplation and study, of all the major subjects. It, therefore, is profitable for us to turn to such former data, and also to that which has become available in recent years, and to consider it anew as guide-posts along the highway which mankind finds he has been directed to travel, that we may intelligently and truly interpret the messages of the past as directions for our own future activity and ambition.
Now, that this history is written, I feel that whatever of merit and of usefulness it may be found to contain, is due largely to those whose former gratuitous services have made available the material from which this work has been compiled. It is to those who have lived, and labored, and recorded the current events, that our appreciation should now be tendered. An event or a human accomplishment that does not either leave its own record of results, or that has not had a faithful memorial of its occurrence, might as well never have been for all the value its happening will be to future generations.
Therefore, it is with pleasure that the writer reminds those who read the pages of this work, that we are all indebted to a very great many persons who have lived, and acted, and preserved for us a more or less complete record of early struggles and defeats; of early effort and success; of former causes and effects; that the narrative of their experiences may serve as a beacon light upon the highway of our lives, and the lives of those who shall come after us, pointing out the way for sure success.
Table of Contensts
Our Beginnings 64
The Mound Builders 70
Indian Inhabitants 86
French Activities 107
French and English Rivalry 119
The French Struggle for Title 128
Washington's Historic Mission 146
The Struggle for the "Forks of the Ohio" 165
Pontiac Causes Trouble 176
Erie County a Wilderness 192
Physical Geography 198
Our Land Titles 209
Pioneer Anecdotes 238
Pioneer Activities 255
Presque Isle, Erie, Erietown Hamlet, Boro, City 282
First Mills, Factories, etc. 320
Early Roads 327
General ("Mad") Anthony Wayne 336
Oliver Hazard Perry and The Battle of Lake Erie 340
Erie Extension Canal 347
The Railroads 351
Street and Electric Railways 357
Churches and Religion 359
The Bench and the Bar 382
Doctors, Surgeons and Dentists 402
Newspapers and Periodicals 405
City of Corry 436
Our Wars 470
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VOLUME II - Biographical Index
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A fourth region, located in the valley of the Ohio, may be termed the region of "Village Enclosures", or as sometimes termed "Sacred Enclosures". This region was apparently devoted to the more peaceful pursuits of agriculture, and the earth constructions are in the forms of the square and two circles adjoined. These village-enclosures were usually situated upon the wide second terraces, from whence a clear view of the great, rich bottom lands could be had; while upon the hills near by were constructed the conical mounds, evidently used as look-out stations. Many forts of ancient construction, placed where they could be used for military stations or as places of convenient refuge, are to be found distributed throughout this region. In addition to those works there are also, within this region, enclosures which surround groups of burial mounds. These burial mounds often contain altars whereon were deposited great quantities of costly offerings, such as mica plates, arrow-heads, carved pipes, articles made from pearl, and many prized personal ornaments. In this same territory are a number of pyramids of truncated form, with ways graded up to the summit platforms, which have come to be denominated "temple mounds", in the belief that they had been used as places for assemblages for religious ceremonies. Within one such enclosure are three such platform pyramids, and from the enclosure down to the edge of the water extends two high banks with a graded road-way between them sloping upwards into the enclosure, and with a high lookout mound surrounded by a circle having a ditch within the circle, at one end of this group.