The Victoria history of the county of Surrey, England


For the general design and scope of the History of Surrey the reader is referred to the General Advertisement of the Victoria History.

One history of the county of the first class exists already, Manning and Bray's, published in three volumes in 1814; the first volume had appeared alone earlier. But not only has something been learned in the last hundred years in history and archaeology, but certain features of the county, which are treated in this volume, scarcely occupied the attention of those very learned and painstaking writers at all. The various sides of Surrey Natural History, which are dealt with by specialists here, lay outside their plan altogether. Geology was an unknown science then, for if a beginning had been made yet the geology of to-day is practically new knowledge.

Manning and Bray have the distinction of having started this Topographical History upon the right lines, by translating Domesday and engraving a map of the Domesday Survey of the county. But the literature of the Domesday Survey is now something very different from what it was. Mr. J. Horace Round, the unrivaled authority upon Domesday and the age of Domesday, has contributed an Introduction to the Survey of Surrey, and the Editor has executed an entirely new translation of the whole of the text, with notes, with the invaluable assistance of the same specialist.

The general sketch of the Political History is included in the present volume. One of the aims of the series is to 'show what part the county played in the larger History of the Empire.' The geographical position of Surrey, between London and the south coast, has made the county the scene of events, especially of the march of armies, connected with the most important crises of our histories. Yet the reader will find that local considerations have ruled the scope of treatment of political events. The Great Charter was granted in a Surrey meadow; but it is not of local interest. Had John and the Barons adjourned across the Thames its effects would have been the same. The Chartist meeting of 1848 was in Surrey; but the bad local choice of its promoters had a good deal to do with the peaceful fiasco which ensued. The Political History is amplified about the age of Elizabeth. The existence in a Surrey manor house of a vast mass of unpublished papers, the Loseley MSS., which the courtesy of the owner, Mr. More Molyneux, has placed at the disposal of the Editor, seemed to be a reason why county records should be more freely employed in illustrating certain phases of history, to throw light not only on the administration of Surrey, but on that of any county under the Tudors. The history of Surrey undoubtedly contributes here to the understanding of 'the larger History of the Empire.'

The continuity of the Political History appears to be impaired by the necessary postponement of the section on Roman Surrey. The section will appear later; but the break is more apparent than real. The Roman remains are not very extensive, and it is impossible to piece together with absolute certainty any continuous story from British tribes through Roman occupation to West Saxon and Mercian conquest. The Saxon remains are fragmentary, but their story has been given as fully as is compatible with certainty. Some further inferences are possible, but a few positive and negative facts stand out clearly. Among the latter is that Surrey was not South Saxon. The countries north and south respectively of a great forest were not inhabited by the same people, nor ruled by the same kings in primitive ages. This is among the fictions of the earlier histories of Surrey.

The Ecclesiastical History of Surrey will follow in the next volume. The Topographical and Manorial History will occupy the greater part of the second, third and fourth volumes, taken together. Other matters, commercial, industrial and social, will be included. Under the last head Surrey may perhaps again illustrate general history. Epsom is one of the earliest considerable English watering places, and has other associations. The early history of cricket has much to do with Surrey. Wimbledon and Bisley are in Surrey. Putney and Mortlake are in Surrey. The first London railway terminus was in Surrey.


Table of Contents

Dedication v
The Advisory Council of the Victoria History vii
General Advertisement vii
The Surrey County Committee xiii
Contents xv
List of Illustrations xvii
Preface xix
Natural History

Geology 1
Palaeontology 29
Introduction 35
Phanerogams, Summary of Orders 39
The Botanical Districts 40
Rubi (Brambles) 47
Vascular Cryptogams (Ferns, etc.) 49
Musci (Mosses) 51
Characeae 56
Freshwater Algae 57
Lichenes (Lichens) 60
Fungi 63
Mollusca (Snails, etc.) 71
Insecta (Insects) 73
Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Earwigs, etc.) 73
Neuroptera (DragpnJUa, etc.) and Trichoptera (Cadditflies, etc.) 76
Hymenoptera Aculeata (Bees, etc.) 84
Chrysididae 90
Hymenoptera Phytophaga (Sawflies, etc.) 91
Coleoptera (Beetles) 94
Lepidoptera Rhopalocera (Butterflies) 109
Lepidoptera Heterocera (Moths), Nocturni, Geometrae, Drepanulidae, Pseudo-Bombyces, Noctuae, Deltoides, Pyralides, Crambites 116
Tortrices, Tineae, Pterophori 137
Diptera (Flies) 151
Hemiptera Heteroptera (Bugs) 161
Hemiptera Homoptera (Cicadas, Aphides, etc.) 168
Myriapoda (Centipedes, etc.) 176
Arachnida (Spiders) 178
Crustacea (Crabs, etc.) 187
Pisces (Fishes) 198
Reptilia (Reptiles) and Batrachia (Batrachians) 200
Aves (Birds) 202
Mammalia (Mammals) 219
Early Man 227
Anglo-Saxon Remains 255
Introduction to the Surrey Domesday 275
The Text of the Surrey Domesday 295
Political History 329
Index to the Surrey Domesday 445


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Table of Contents

Dedication v
Contents ix
List of Illustrations xi
Editorial Note xiii
Table of Abbreviations xv
Ecclesiastical History 1

Religious Houses
Introduction 54
Abbey of Chertsey 55
" " Bermondsey 64
" " Waverley 77
Priory of Sheen 89
" " St. Mary of Merton 94
" " Newark 102
" " Reigate 105
" " Southwark 107
" " Tandridge 112
Dominican Friars of Guildford 114
Friars Observant of Richmond 116
Hospital of Newington 118
" " Sandon 118
" " St. Thomas, Southwark 119
Leper Hospital of Southwark 124
Collegiate Chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, Kingston 125
College of Lambeth 127
" " Lingfield 127
" " Maiden 128
Priory of Tooting 129
Military History 131
History of Schools 155
Introduction 243
Iron 263
Stone Quarries, Lime Burning, Fullers' Earth, etc. 277
Pottery 281
Glass 295
Battersea Enamels 305
Gunpowder 306
Leather 329
Industries (continued)
Cloth 342
Miscellaneous Textile and Allied Industries 349
Tapestry 354
Felt and Hat Making 359
Dyeing, Bleaching, Calico Printing 363
Brewing 378
Distilling 394
Vinegar and British Wines 397
Aerated and Mineral Waters 401
Soap and Candle Making 402
Metal and Machinery Works 410
Paper 418
Printing and Printing Machinery 421
Ecclesiastical Architecture 425
Domestic Architecture 461
Sport Ancient and Modern
Foxhounds 483
Staghounds 490
Harriers and Beagles 490
Racing 491
Polo 513
Shooting 514
Angling 517
Athletics 520
Golf 521
Cricket 526
Football 549
Forestry 561
Topography: Farnham Hundred
Farnham Hundred 579
Farnham 581
Elsted 605
Frensham 608
Seale 616
Waverley 620


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Table of Contents

Dedication v
Contents ix
List of Illustrations xiii
List of Maps xviii
Editorial Note xix

Godalming Hundred
Introduction 1
Arlington 3
Chiddingfold 10
Compton 16
Godalming 24
Hambledon 42
Haslemere 45
Peper Harow 49
Puttenham 52
Thursley 59
Witley 61
Blackheath Hundred
Introduction 70
Albury 72
Alfold 77
Bramley 80
Cranleigh 86
Dunsfold 92
Ewhurst 97
Hascombe 102
St. Martha's or Chilworth 104
Topography (continued)
Blackheath Hundred (continued)
Shalford 107
Shere 111
Wonersh 121
Wotton Hundred
Introduction 128
Abinger 129
Capel 134
Dorking 141
Ockley 150
Wotton 154
Reigate Hundred
Introduction 165
Betchworth 166
Buckland 173
Burstow 176
Charlwood 176
Chipstead 189
Gatton 196
Horley 200
Leigh 208
Merstham 213
Nutfield 222
Reigate 229
Copthorne Hundred
Introduction 246
Ashtead 247
Banstead 252
Chessington 263
Cuddington 266
Epsom 271
Ewell 278
Fetcham 284
Headley 290
Letherhead 293
Mickleham 301
Topography (continued)
Copthorne Hundred (continued)
Newdigate (part of) 310
Walton-on-the-Hill 315
Effingham Hundred
Introduction 320
Effingham 321
Great Bookham 326
Little Bookham 335
Woking Hundred
Introduction 339
Ash 340
East Clandon 344
West Clandon 346
East Horsley 349
West Horsley 353
Merrow 357
Ockham 359
Pirbright 363
Send with Ripley 365
Stoke next Guildford 374
Wanborough 376
Wisley 378
Woking 381
Worplesdon 390
Godley Hundred
Introduction 396
Bisley 398
Byfleet 399
Chertsey 403
Chobham 413
Egham 419
Horsell 427
Pyrford 431
Thorpe 437
Elmbridge Hundred
Introduction 441
Cobham 442
Esher 447
Topography (continued)
Elmbridge Hundred (continued)
East and West Molesey 451
Stoke D'Abernon 457
Thames Ditton 462
Walton-on-Thames 467
Weybridge 475
Kingston Hundred
Introduction 481
Kew 482
Kingston-upon-Thames 487
Long Ditton 516
Malden 523
Petersham 525
Richmond, anciently Sheen 533
Guildford Borough 547


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Before the primacy of Theodore of Tarsus we cannot speak with certainty of any ecclesiastical organization in Surrey. During the last century of the Roman occupation of Britain the nominal religion of the empire was indeed Christianity, but whether the inhabitants of the then undefined portion of Roman Britain which became Surrey, were in any sense Christian, or had any ecclesiastical organization, there is no evidence to show. Among the Roman coins found at Farley Heath by Mr. Tupper there was one or that singularly un-Christian emperor, Magnentius, bearing the XP mono- gram between A and Q, and this is the sole monument probably of Romano-British Christianity in the county. There seem to be no ancient dedications of parish churches to British saints, nor any material remains in church buildings belonging to that epoch. There was a bishop in London, and as there was no Roman town in Surrey of a size to be worthy of a bishop's seat, the district may have been ecclesiastically dependent upon London. West Saxons, East Saxons and Kentishmen were equally heathen when they settled or conquered in Surrey. The probabilities of the source whence came the first conversion of the inhabitants to Christianity are involved in the questions of the extent and order of the political supremacies of Wessex, Mercia and Kent over Surrey. But the subsequent inclusion of Surrey in the West Saxon diocese of Winchester points to the nominal conversion having taken place under West Saxon rule.