The Victoria history of the county of Suffolk, England


East Anglia exhibits a peculiar difficulty to the county historian on account of the small size, and consequently the large number, of its parishes and manors. This is probably the cause of various unsuccessful attempts to' write the history of Suffolk. Some of these efforts have so far matured as to reach the stage of the publication of one or two volumes, while others have not got beyond the stage of preliminary manuscript collections. The first to attempt a county history of Suffolk was John Gage, F.R.S., F.S.A., who, in 1838, took the name of Rokewode. He published, in 1822, The History and Antiquities of Hengrave, in which parish was the family seat of his father and afterwards of his elder brother. In 1838 he issued the first volume of his proposed larger work, The History and Antiquities of Suffolk, containing the history of the hundred of Thingoe, the only part of his history which reached publication. His work is careful and exhaustive, and it is much to be regretted that it was not completed. His valuable collections for the continuation of the work are now preserved at Hengrave Hall. The next to take up the history of the county was Alfred Inigo Fox, LL.B., who, in 1820, took the name of Suckling. He began the publication of his History and Antiquities of Suffolk in 1846, but, like Gage, he only completed the history of one hundred, that of Lothingland. Kirkby's Suffolk Traveller, published in 1848, and its later edition, with supplement by Augustine Page, published in 1844, cannot be strictly called county histories, although they contain much useful information. An admirable history of the county was undertaken by the late Mr. W. A. Coppinger, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A., who, in 1905, published The Manors of Suffolk, with Notes on their History and Devolution. This volume contains the history of the hundreds of Babergh and Blackburn. In 1908 the second volume, including the hundreds of Blything, Bosmere, and Claydon, appeared. Dr. Coppinger's Materials for the History of Suffolk, containing references to sources for a history of the county, is of great value to all those interested in the topography of Suffolk. Besides the printed histories of the county, there are several manuscript collections for histories, principal among which are those of David Ehsha Davy, B.A., which were purchased by the British Museum in 1852 (Add. MSS. 19077-19207); of Davy's friend, H. Jermyn, which were presented to the British Museum by Herbert Gurney in 1830 (Add. MSS. 8168-96); and of Craven Ord, F.R.S., F.S.A., most of whose collections are also now in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 71 01-2, 8986-7).

During the preparation of this volume the Editor has had to deplore the death of Mr. H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., who left the rough draft of his article on the Marine Zoology of the county, the re- vision of the proofs of which was generously undertaken by the Rev. Canon Norma/i, D.C.L. The Editor also greatly regrets the loss of his old and much esteemed friend, Mr. George E. Fox, Hon. M.A., F.S.A., whose profound knowledge of Roman archaeology and kindly sympathy endeared him to a large circle of friends. Mr. Fox died before finally revising the proofs of his article on the Roman Remains of the county, for the correction of which the Editor is responsible. The late Canon Raven was to have written the articles on Early Man and the Anglo- Saxon Remains of the county, but died before commencing the work.

The Editor has to express his thanks to Lord Francis Hervey for advice and assistance ; to the Society of Antiquaries, the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, the British Archaeological Association, the Royal Archaeological Institute, the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia, Mr. C. D. Pridden, M.A., Mr. Frank Woolnough, Mr. W. Allen Sturge, M.V.O., M.D., F.R.C.P., and Miss Nina Layard, for illustrations and information; and to Mr. Vincent Redstone for his ready help in many ways while passing the sheets through the press.

Owing to unforeseen circumstances there has been a delay in the publication of this volume ; hence it is possible that works issued during the past year, touching upon the subjects with which it deals, may not have been consulted.


Table of Contents

Dedication v
The Advisory Council of the Victoria History vii
General Advertisement vii
The Suffolk County Committee xiii
Contents xv
List of Illustrations and Maps xvii
Preface xxi
Table of Abbreviations xxiii
Natural History

Geology 1
Palaeontology 31
Introduction 47
Botanical Districts 51
List of Phanerogamia 60
Characeae (Stoneworts) 69
Musci (Mosses) 71
Hepaticae (Liverworts) 73
Freshwater Algae and Diatoms 74
Marine Algae 77
Lichenes (Lichens) 79
Fungi 81
Marine 85
Molluscs (Non-Marine) 96
Insects 101
Orthoptera (Earwigs, Grasshoppers, Crickets, etc.) 102
Neuroptera (Dragon-flies, Stone-flies, Lacewings, etc.) 104
Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, Wasps, Saw-flies, Gall-flies, etc.) 107
Coleoptera (Beetles) 122
Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) 128
Diptera (Flies) 135
Hemiptera (Bugs) 141
Spiders 150
Crustaceans 153
Fishes 163
Reptiles and Batrachians 173
Birds 177
Mammals 215
Early Man 235
Palaeolithic Age 235
Neolithic Age 248
Topographical List of Palaeolithic and Neolithic Localities 256
Bronze Age 263
Early Iron Age 270
Topographical List of Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Antiquities 275
Romano-British Suffolk 279
Appendix on Santon Downham hoard 321
Anglo-Saxon Remains 325
Introduction to the Suffolk Domesday 357
Translation of the Suffolk Domesday 418
Ancient Earthworks 583
Social and Economic History 633
Part I 633
Part II 660
Table of Population 1801-1901 683


Read the Book - Free

Download the Book - Free ( 40.1 MB PDF )



Table of Contents

Dedication v
Contents ix
List of Illustrations xiii
Editorial Note xv
Ecclesiastical History 1
Religious Houses

Introduction 53
Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds 56
Priory of Eye 72
Priory of Dunwich 76
Priory of Edwardstone 76
Priory of Hoxne 76
Priory of Rumburgh 77
Priory of Snape 79
Priory of Felixstowe 80
Priory of Bungay 81
Priory of Redlingfield 83
Priory of St. George, Thetford 85
Priory of Mendham 86
Priory of Wangford 88
Abbey of Sibton 89
Priory of Alnesbourn 91
Priory of Blythburgh 91
Priory of Bricett 94
Priory of Butley 95
Priory of Chipley 99
Priory of Dodnash 99
Priory of Herringfleet 100
Priory of St. Peter and St. Paul Ipswich 102
Priory of the Holy Trinity, Ipswich 103
Priory of Ixworth 105
Priory of Kersey 107
Priory of Letheringham 108
Priory of the Holy Sepulchre, Thetford 109
Priory of Woodbridge 111
Priory of Campsey 112
Priory of Flixton 115
Abbey of Leiston 117
Knights Templars of Dunwich 120
Preceptory of Battisford 120
Dominican Friars of Dunwich 121
Dominican Friars of Ipswich 122
Dominican Friars of Sudbury 123
Franciscan Friars of Bury St. Edmunds 124
Franciscan Friars of Dunwich 125
Grey Friars of Ipswich 126
Austin Friars of Clare 127
Austin Friars of Gorleston 129
Austin Friars of Orford 130
Carmelite Friars of Ipswich 130
Abbey of Bruisyard 131
Hospital of Beccles 132
Hospital of Domus Dei, Bury St. Edmunds 133
Hospital of St. Nicholas, Bury St. Edmunds 134
Hospital of St. Peter, Bury St. Edmunds 134
Hospital of St. Petronilla, Bury St. Edmunds 135
Hospital of St. Saviour, Bury St. Edmunds 135
Hospital of St. James, Dunwich 137
Hospital of the Holy Trinity, Dunwich 137
Hospital of Eye 138
Leper House of Gorleston 138
Leper Hospitals of St. Mary Magdalen and St. James, Ipswich 139
Hospital of St. Leonard, Ipswich 139
Hospitals of Orford 139
Hospital of Domus Dei, Thetford 140
Hospital of St. John, Thetford 140
Hospital of Sibton 140
Hospital of St. Leonard, Sudbury 140
College of Jesus, Bury St. Edmunds 141
College of Denston 142
Cardinal's College, Ipswich 142
College of Mettingham 144
College of Stoke by Clare 145
College of Sudbury 150
College of Wingfield 152
Priory of Blakenham 152
Priory of Greeting St. Mary 153
Priory of Creeting St. Olave 153
Priory of Stoke by Clare 154
Hospital of Great Thurlow 155
Hospital of Sudbury 155
Political History 157
Maritime History 199
Introduction 247
Woollen Cloth —The Old Draperies 254
The New Draperies, Woolcombing and Spinning 267
Sailcloth and other Hempen Fabrics 271
Silk Throwing and Silk Weaving 273
Mixed Textiles (Drabbet, Horsehair, Cocoa-nut Fibre) and Ready-made Clothing 274
Stay and Corset Making 276
Lowestoft China 277
Agricultural Implements, Milling Machinery, Locomotives, &c. 281
Fertilizers 285
Gun-Cotton 286
Xylonite 287
Malting 288
Printing 288
Fisheries 289
Schools 301
Introduction, Dunwich, Thetford, Bury St. Edmunds, Ipswich and Elementary Schools )
The remaining Schools
Sport Ancient and Modern
Hunting 357
Staghounds 360
Harriers 361
Coursing 361
Shooting 364
Wild-fowling 371
Angling 375
Racing 380
Golf 383
Camp Ball 384
Athletics 384
Agriculture 385
Forestry 403


Read the Book - Free

Download the Book - Free ( 27.9 MB PDF )

Suffolk forms part of the East Anglian plain, and consists almost wholly of an undulating region which rarely attains an elevation of 400 feet. The greater portion of the county rises from 80 to 200 feet above sea-level; there are no prominent hills, and even the district between Stowmarket and Harleston, to which the term 'High Suffolk' has sometimes been applied, lies below 200 feet. The highest ground is between Haverhill and Bury St. Edmunds, and this reaches 417 feet at Rede. The great alluvial tract of the Fenland extends to Mildenhall in the north-western portion of the county, and constitutes a lower plain.