The Victoria history of the county of Hereford, England


Although Herefordshire as a border county has much of historical interest from a very early date, yet hitherto it has ha but one county history and that incomplete. The Rev. John Duncumb, M.A., F.S.A., commenced to compile a history of the county in 1790 at the expense of Charles, 11th Duke of Norfolk. The first volume was published in 1804, and the first part of a second in 1812, but at the death of the Duke of Norfolk in 1815 the work ceased. The materials collected by Duncumb, which belonged to the Duke's executors, found their way into the hands of Thomas Thorpe, bookseller, in 1837, who issued a further installment of Volume II, which was already in type. This volume was in 1866 completed by Judge William Henry Cooke, M.A., K.C., F.S.A., who continued Duncumb's work, issuing a third volume in 1882 and a fourth in 1892. Since Duncumb's time more material has been made available, and therefore Judge Cooke's continuation is a great improvement on the original work.


Table of Contents

Dedication v
The Advisory Council of the Victoria History vii
General Advertisement vii
Contents xiii
List of Illustrations and Maps xv
Preface xv
Table of Abbreviations xxi
Natural History :

Geology 1
Palaeontology 35
Botany :
Introduction 39
Botanical Districts 42
Cryptogamia Vascularia :
Filices (Ferns and Fern Jellies) 53
Equisetaceae and Lycopodiaceae 54
Musci {Mosses) 54
Fungi 56
Zoology :
Molluscs 77
Insects 80
Orthoptera (Earwigs, Grasshoppers, &c.) and Neuroptera (Dragon flies, Lace-wings, &c.) 80
Coleoptera (Beetles) 80
Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) 85
Diptera (Flies) 96
Spiders 109
Crustaceans 112
Fishes 122
Reptiles and Batrachians 127
Birds 130
Mammals 149
Early Man 157
Romano-British Herefordshire 167
Ancient Earthworks 199
Offia's Dike in Herefordshire 258
Introduction to the Herefordshire Domesday 263
Translation of the Herefordshire Domesday 309
Political History 347
Agriculture 407


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The majority of the chordate fossils from the Old Red Sandstone of the county belong to the armored group of Ostracodermi, which is classed by some authorities among the true fishes, while by others it is regarded as forming a class by itself outside the limits of the Vertebrata. Hence it is convenient to speak of these fossils as chordates rather than as vertebrates. Other species belong, however, to undoubted fishes of the group Arthrodira, which is included in the class of Dipnoi, or lung-fishes. There are likewise a few remains of other groups of fishes, mostly in the form of spines, whose systematic position is often a matter of difficulty.